sabato, settembre 30, 2006

Sull'eutanasia - quarta parte

Sulla eutanasia
Parte IV^



Il termine EUTANASIA deriva dal greco antico ( éu - bene – e thanatos - morte – e sta ad indicare l’azione od un’omissione volontaria attraverso la quale si intende abbreviare ad un malato terminale un’agonia molto dolorosa.
La Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede in data 05 maggio 1980 nella sua dichiarazione denominata “Iura et bona” ebbe, pur condannandola, a ben definirla come “ …..un’azione o una omissione che di natura sua, o nelle intenzioni, procura la morte, allo scopo di eliminare ogni dolore. L’eutanasia si situa, dunque, al livello delle intenzioni e dei metodi usati”.
Si suole distinguere in:
· attiva, allorché vengono somministrate al malato terminale da terzi determinate sostanze atte ad abbreviare il prolungare di una sofferenza oramai irreversibile;
· passiva, attraverso la sospensione del trattamento medico – farmaceutico e strumentale ( esempio la respirazione artificiale ).
L’ eutanasia passiva è l’opposto del trattamento che viene definito come ACCANIMENTO TERAPEUTICO che si ha allorché viene, inutilmente, messo in atto ogni tipo di cura al solo scopo di prolungare la vita biologica del malato pur nella convinzione della totale inutilità, al fine della guarigione, delle procedure curative. E’ un vero e proprio quasi cinico prolungamento dell’agonia. Fece a suo tempo scalpore quello praticato al Presidente della Jugoslavia Tito che, per fini meramente politici, venne tenuto in vita (?) per lungo tempo anche se oramai non dava più alcun segno di una sia pur minima reazione positiva alle terapie palliative.
Morto lui scoppiò in quella nazione un pandemonio; ma a Tito, oramai insensibile a tutto, interessava ancora ?
Abbiamo già visto cosa sia il c.d. TESTAMENTO BIOLOGICO, in buona sostanza è l’atto, non ancora giuridico, attraverso il quale un soggetto capace di intendere e di volere esplicita, alla presenza di uno o più testimoni, il proprio rifiuto, un mettere le mani avanti, di ricevere quei trattamenti terapeutici che rasentino l’accanimento terapeutico nel caso in cui una malattia dovesse renderlo del tutto incosciente. Può nominare un proprio “fiduciario” avente il compito del controllo in sua vece dell’operato dei medici. Ha un grosso limite e cioè che il medico non è vincolato da questo documento e può quindi decidere di non esaudire la richiesta del malato, indicandone però i motivi sulla cartella clinica del paziente.
Tale circostanza rende, pertanto, nullo e privo di giuridico effetto questo escamotage con il quale si intende da parte di alcuni eludere il problema dell’istituto dell’eutanasia ancora escluso dal nostro ordinamento giuridico.
Accennavo nella precedente III ^ parte ad alcuni sondaggi ma per meglio completare questo argomento preferisco riportarvi interamente quanto scritto da un valido maestro in materia statistica, Roberto Mannheimer, su La Repubblica in data 26 settembre u.s.


"IL SONDAGGIO
Quasi un cattolico su due è favorevole alla legalizzazione.
L’orientamento per età: consensi maggiori tra i giovanissimi, ma anche tra gli over 65 i <> sono in maggioranza.
Il dibattito sull’opportunità della legalizzazione dell’eutanasia anche nel nostro Paese torna periodicamente di attualità. Quando si manifestano situazioni eclatanti - come, in questi giorni, il caso di Welby – e, di conseguenza, i media vi porgono maggiore attenzione, i cittadini sono stimolati a considerare con più interesse la questione e ad elaborare il loro giudizio. In questo come in altri casi, la formazione dell’orientamento dell’opinione pubblica è frutto di un processo che si dipana nel tempo , con improvvise accelerazioni o rallentamenti e che subisce variazioni anche in relazione a specifici avvenimenti o dichiarazione dei leader di opinione.
Tutti i dati dell’indagine
Accadde così 30 anni fa per il divorzio - ha ragione Pannella a sottolineare le similitudini con quel periodo - e sta avvenendo ora per l’eutanasia. Quest’ultima ha visto per molto tempo la contrarietà di gran parte degli italiani e, specialmente, l’esistenza di una ampia area di indecisione. O, meglio, di assenza di opinione perché si diceva “non ci avevo mai pensato”. Ancora nel 2001, quasi il 25 % della popolazione non aveva un parere al riguardo. E tra i restanti, la maggioranza - 54 % - la riteneva “in nessun caso giustificabile”.
Con l’intensificarsi del dibattito ed a seguito delle sollecitazioni e, talvolta, delle provocazioni dei Radicali, molti cittadini sono giunti negli ultimi anni a formarsi un’opinione più precisa ed altri l’hanno mutata. Tanto che oggi l’auspicio per una legge che autorizzi l’eutanasia è divenuto maggioritario. Naturalmente, buona parte dei favorevoli pone condizioni precise: che vi sia “dolore fisico insopportabile per il malato”. O che “la scienza medica giudichi il caso senza speranza” – formulazione adottata nella ricerca della Chiesa Evangelica Valdese condotta da Eurisko nel maggio 2006, dalla quale emerge il 69 % di favorevoli all’eutanasia -.
La legalizzazione dell’eutanasia viene approvata grosso modo nella stessa misura tra i vari gruppi sociali e tra i residenti nelle diverse regioni – con, però, una lieve accentuazione di contrari al Sud -.
La medesima trasversalità si riscontra in relazione all’orientamento politico: i favorevoli sono presenti in egual misura nell’elettorato del centrodestra e del centrosinistra, con una modesta accentuazione di contrari tra chi si astiene perché si “sente lontano e disinteressato dalla politica”. Viceversa, com’era ragionevole attendersi, l’atteggiamento verso l’eutanasia varia fortemente in relazione alla religiosità: l’auspicio alla legittimazione si riscontra molto più frequentemente - 80 % - tra chi non partecipa mai alle funzioni religiose. Ma anche tra i cattolici praticanti - quelli che vanno a messa almeno una volta al mese - quasi la metà , circa il 45 %, esprime il proprio favore .
L’insieme di questi dati mostra l’esistenza, nell’opinione pubblica del nostro Paese, di un progressivo trend di accettazione dell’ammissibilità dell’eutanasia. Anche se permane una ampia minoranza di contrari, specie - ma non solo – appartenenti al mondo cattolico. Anche in quest’ultimo, tuttavia, come nella società nel suo complesso, si manifestano gli effetti della progressiva “laicizzazione” della nostra cultura e, di conseguenza, dei nostri valori."

Cosa posso dire ? Che i tempi stanno maturando anche contro il volere, anzi il non volere, di molti nostri politici i cui cervelli non matureranno mai: peccato !
Nella quinta ed ultima parte tenterò di illustravi dove ed in che maniera è stata legalizzata l’eutanasia.

FINE della IV^ parte

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